Affirmed, overall mean urinary citrate are increased when you look at the mice fed K-cit (K-cit, 182±3

Affirmed, overall mean urinary citrate are increased when you look at the mice fed K-cit (K-cit, 182±3

4 mg/d versus KCl, 110±2.7 mg/d; P<0.001) ( Table 1 ). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary pH (K-cit, 7.51±0.04 versus KCl, 6.71±0.05; P<0.001). K-cit reduced mean overall urinary NH4 (K-cit, 0.25±0.01 mmol/d versus KCl, 0.41±0.01 mmol/d; P<0.001). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary sulfate (K-cit, 1.08±0.02 mEq/d versus KCl, 0.86±0.02 mEq/d; P<0.001). Each of these changes was present at each time point. Overall mean urinary uric acid excretion did not differ (K-cit, 1.6±0.1 mg/d versus KCl, 2.0±0.2 mg/d; P=NS).

Desk step one.

Urinary citrate, pH and sulfate were increased while NH4, chloride, sodium and K were the same or decreased with K-cit compared to KCl

Values is shown because suggest±SEM. Pee try gathered to own twenty four time on 6, 12, and you may 18 wk to decide solute levels because explained about To the level Steps.

K-cit resulted in a slightly lower overall mean urinary sodium (K-cit, 2.16±0.03 mmol/d versus KCl, 2.36±0.04; P<0.001), which was significant at 6 and 18 weeks but not at 12 weeks ( Table 1 ). K-cit resulted in a slightly but significantly lower mean overall urinary K (K-cit, 4.8±0.04 mmol/d versus KCl, 5.3±0.08 mmol/d; P<0.001) that was significant at each time period. As expected, the rats receiving K-cit excreted less chloride than the rats receiving KCl (K-cit, 2.2±0.07 mEq/d versus KCl, 6.4±0.15 mEq/d; P<0.001), which was significant at each 6-week time period. K-cit did not alter the overall mean urine volume (K-cit, 47.3±1.6 ml/d versus KCl, 53.0±2.7 ml/d; P=NS) or the overall mean urinary creatinine (K-cit, ±0.17 mg/d versus KCl, ±0.22 mg/d; P=NS).

Urine Supersaturation

K-cit led to a significant increase in the urinary supersaturation with respect to both CaP (K-cit, 8.5±0.6 versus KCl, 4.9±0.2; P<0.001) and CaOx (K-cit, 9.8±0.5 versus KCl, 5.5±0.2; P<0.001) and a reduction of supersaturation with respect to uric acid (K-cit, 0.003±0.0005 versus KCl, 0.022±0.003; P<0.001) ( Figure 2 ). Each of these differences was significant at each time period.

Urinary supersaturation (SS) of CaP and CaOx were increased and uric acid SS was decreased with K-cit. Urine was collected for 24 hours at 6, 12, and 18 weeks to determine solute levels that were used to calculate relative supersaturation as described in the Concise Methods. Values for relative supersaturation are mean±SEM and are unitless. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.

Serum Profile

Gel quantities of calcium and PTH did not differ ranging from K-cit–provided and you will KCl-provided mice, if you’re gel phosphate profile were ;given mice ( Profile step 3 ).

K-cit decreased serum phosphate levels but did not change serum Ca or PTH. At the conclusion of the 18-week study, these levels were determined as described in the Concise Methods. Values are mean±SEM. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.

Stone Formation

K-cit did not alter the level of stones shaped otherwise extent away from calcification throughout the kidneys ( Shape 4 ). All of the rats designed stones from similar size and you can occurrence and had equivalent degrees of calcification within the kidney and event program.

Kidney brick creation and you will calcification was not additional when you look at the mice provided KCl otherwise K-cit. At the end of the fresh 18-week analysis, the fresh new the total amount regarding renal rocks and you may calcification try determined by three observers as the revealed in the To the stage Methods. The quantity off kidney calcification has also been computed once the discussed from the To the stage Procedures. (A) Affiliate radiographs out-of kidneys from mice receiving KCl otherwise K-cit. Calcification results into photographs revealed are offered since the a research. (B) Quantitation off brick formation and calcification in most rats choosing KCl or K-cit. Beliefs are imply±SEM.

Noticeable rocks was indeed dissected off member kidneys off both organizations and you may examined to own amazingly morphology. The fresh diffraction patterns for everyone analyzed samples had been congruent into diffraction development out-of biologic apatite, a cover stone ( Figure 5 , top). Which have the means to access alert electron microscopy (TEM), all the renal stone crystals had a baton- otherwise needle-such as for instance profile, just like the morphology from biologic apatite deposits ( Contour 5 , bottom) and you may unlike new octahedral crystal morphology out of CaOx.

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